Snow Lab Publications

Reprints distributed through this site are in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format.


2015 – Presentation for National Research Council, NAS, Committee on Gene Drives in Non-Human Organisms; “Gene flow and gene drives”: 
2014 – National Academy of Sciences Workshop - When Science and Citizens Connect: Public Engagement on Genetically Modified Organisms; Group Report on Transgenic Corn and Monarch Butterflies:



Mutegi, E., A.A. Snow, C.L. Bonin, E.A. Heaton, H. Chang, C.J. Gernes, D.J. Palik, M.N. Miriti. 2016.  Population genetics and seed set in feral, ornamental Miscanthus sacchariflorus.  Invasive Plant Science and Management 9:214-228. DOI: 10.1614/IPSM-D-16-00030.1

Palik, D.J., A.A. Snow, A.L. Stottlemyer, M.N. Miriti, E.A. Heaton. 2016.  Relative performance of non-local cultivars and local, wild populations of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in competition experiments.  PLOS ONE 11(4) e0154444. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.

Davidar P., A.A. Snow, M. Rajkumar, R. Pasquet, M-C. Daunay, and E. Mutegi. 2015. The potential for crop-to-wild hybridization in eggplant (Solanum melongena, Solanceae) in southern India. American Journal of Botany 102: 140-148

Mutegi E., A.A. Snow, M. Rajkumar, R. Pasquet, H. Ponniah, M-C. Daunay, and P. Davidar. 2015. Genetic diversity and population structure of wild/weedy eggplant (Solanum insanum L, Solanaceae) in southern India: implications for conservation. American Journal of Botany 102: 129-139

Mercer, K.L., D.J. Emry, A.A. Snow, M.A. Kost, B.A. Pace, and H.M. Alexander.  2014.  Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.  PLOS One

Lu, B-R., A.A. Snow, X. Yang, and W. Wang.  2014.  Using a single transgenic event to infer fitness effects in crop–weed hybrids: a reply to the Letter by Grunewald & Bury.  New Phytologist 202:270-272.

Lu, B-R., A.A. Snow, X. Yang, and W. Wang.  2014.  Scientific data published by a peer-reviewed journal should be properly interpreted: a reply to the letter by Gressel et al. New Phytologist 202: 363-366.

Mutegi, E., A.L. Stottlemyer, A.A. Snow, and P.M. Sweeney. 2014. Genetic structure of remnant populations and cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in the context of prairie conservation and restoration. Restoration Ecology 22:223-231

Ellstrand, N. C., P. Meirmans, J. Rong, D. Bartsch, A. Ghosh, T. J. deJong, P. Haccou, B. Lu, A. A. Snow, C. N. Stewart Jr., J. L. Strasburg, P. H. vanTienderen, and D. Hooftman.  2014.  Introgression of crop alleles into wild or weedy populations.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 44: 325-345; DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135840.

Wang, W., H. Xia, X. Yang, T. Xu, H.J. Si, X.X. Cai, F. Wang, J. Su, A.A. Snow, and B. Lu. 2013. A novel 5-enolpyruvoylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase transgene for glyphosate resistance stimulates growth and fecundity in weedy rice (Oryza sativa) without herbicide. New Phytologist 202:679-688

Adugna, A., A. Snow, P.M. Sweeney, E. Bekele and E. Mutegi. 2013. Population genetic structure of in situ wild Sorghum bicolor in its Ethiopian center of origin based on SSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60:1313-1328.

Snow, A. A. 2012. Book Review of Darwinian agriculture: How understanding evolution can improve agriculture. R. F. Denison, Princeton University Press. Science 338:45.

Snow, A. A. 2012. Illegal gene flow from transgenic creeping bentgrass: the saga continues. Molecular Ecology 21:4663-4664.

Snow, A.A. and V.H. Smith. 2012. Genetically engineered algae for biofuels: a key role for ecologists. BioScience 62:765-768.

Dana, G.V., T. Kuiken, D. Rejeski, and A. A. Snow.  2012.  Four steps to avoid a synthetic-biology disaster.  Nature 483:29.  Reprints available from Allison Snow (email

Hovick, S.H., L.G. Campbell, A.A. Snow, K.D. Whitney. 2012. Hybridization alters early life-history traits and plant colonization success in a novel region. The American Naturalist 179:192-203.

Yang, X., H. Xia, W. Wang, F. Wang, J. Su, A.A. Snow, and B. Lu. 2011. Transgenes for insect resistance reduce herbivory and enhance fecundity in advanced generations of crop-weed hybrids of rice.  Evolutionary Applications 4:672-684. 

Mercer, K.L., H.M. Alexander, and   A.A. Snow. 2011. Selection on seedling emergence timing and size in an annual plant, Helianthus annus (common sunflower, Asteracea). American Journal of Botany 98(6) 975-985.

Adugna. A., P.M. Sweeney, and A.A. Snow.   2011.  Optimization of high throughput, cost effective, and  all-stage DNA extraction protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor.) Journal of Agriculture and Technology  5(2): 243-250.

Snow, A.A., S.E. Travis, R. Wildov, T. Fer, P.M. Sweeney, J.E.Marburger, S. Windels, B. Kubátová, D.E.Goldberg, and E.Mutegi. 2010. Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia x T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America.  American Journal of Botany 98(12) 2061-2067.

Snow, A.A., T.M. Culley, L.G. Campbell,P.M. Sweeney, S.G Hegde, and N.C Ellstrand. 2010. Long-term persistence of crop alleles in weedy populations of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). New Phytologist 186:537-548.

Campbell, L. G., A. A. Snow, and P. M. Sweeney. 2009. When divergent life histories hybridize: insights into adaptive life-history in an annual weed.   New Phytologist 184(4):806-818.

Snow, A.A. 2009. Unwanted Transgenes Re-Discovered in Oaxacan Maize. Molecular Ecology 18:569–571.

Campbell, L.G., and A. A. Snow. 2009. Can feral weeds evolve from cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus, Brassicaceae)? American Journal of Botany 96(2):498-506.

Laughlin, K., A. G. Power, A. A. Snow, and L. J. Spencer.  2009. Environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops: potential fitness-related effects of virus-resistance transgenes in wild squash populations (Cucurbita pepo).   Ecological Applications 19(5):1091-1101.

Campbell, L.G., A. A. Snow. P. M. Sweeney, and J. M. Ketner. 2009 Rapid evolution in crop-weed hybrids under artificial selection for divergent life histories. Evolutionary Applications 2:172-186.

Tesso, T., I Kapran, C. Grenier, A. Snow, P. Sweeney, J. Pedersen, D. Marx, G. Bothma, and G. Ejeta. 2008. The potential for crop-to-wild gene flow in sorghum in Ethiopia and Niger: A geographic survey. Crop Sci. 48:1425-1431.

Cohen, Michael B., Salvatore Arpaia, La Pham Lan, Luong Minh Chau, and Allison A. Snow. 2008. Shared flowering phenology, insect pests, and pathogens among wild, weedy, and cultivated rice in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: implications for transgenic rice. Environ. Biosafety Res. 7:73-85.

Snow, A. 2007. Risk Assessment in Africa: A review of "Seeds for the future: the impact of genetically modified crops on the environment." by Jennifer A. Thompson. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. 2007. Ecology 88:3214-3215.

Snow. A. 2007. Safety First: A review of "Intervention: Confronting the Real Risks of Genetic Engineering and Life on a Biotech Planet"  by Denise Aruso. Hybrid Vigor Institute. 2006. Nature 447:380-381.

Campbell, L.G., and A.A. Snow. 2007. Competition alters life-history traits and increases the relative fecundity of crop-wild hybrids (Raphanus spp.). New Phytologist 173:648-660.

Garcia, S. E. Ezcurra, B Shoel, F. Acevedo, J. Soberon, and A. A. Snow. 2006  Transgenic Maize in Mexico. BioScience 56:709-710.

Rong, J., B. Lu, S. Zhiping, S. Jan, A. A. Snow, Z. Xinsheng, S. Shuguang, R. Chen, W. Feng. 2006. Dramatic reduction of crop-to-crop gene flow within a short distance from transgenic rice fields.  New Phytologist 173: 346-353.

Chen, L.Y., A. A. Snow, F. Wang, and B.-R. Lu. 2006. Effects of insect-resistance transgenes on fecundity in rice (Oryza sativa): a test for underlying costs.  American Journal of Botany 93:94-101.

Reagon, M. and A. A. Snow. 2006.  Cultivated Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae) as a genetic "bridge" to weedy sunflower populations in North America. American Journal of Botany 93:127-133. 

Campbell, L., A.  Snow and C. Ridley. 2006. Weed evolution after crop gene introgression: greater survival and fecundity of hybrids in a new environment. Ecology Letters 9:198-1209.

Selbo, Sarena M. and Allison A. Snow. 2005. Flowering Phenology and Genetic Similarity among Local and Recently Introduced Populations of Andropogon gerardii in Ohio. Restoration Ecology 13 (3): 441-447

Klips, Robert A. Sweeney, Patricia M.; Bauman, Elisabeth K. F.; Snow, Allison A. 2005. Temporal and geographic variation in predispersal seed predation on hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae) in Ohio and Maryland, USA American Midland Naturalist 154(2) 286-295

Lu, Bao-Rong and Allison A. Snow. 2005. Gene flow from genetically modified rice and its environmental consequences. BioScience 55: 669-678.

Ortiz-Garcia, S.,  E. Ezcurra, B Shoel, F. Acevedo, J. Soberon, and A. A. Snow. 2005. Reply to Cleveland et al.’s “Detecting (trans)gene flow to landraces in centers of crop origin: lessons from the case of maize in Mexico”. Environ. Biosafety Res. 4:209–215

Ortiz-Garcia, S.,  E. Ezcurra, B Shoel, F. Acevedo, J. Soberon, and A. A. Snow. 2005. Absence of detectable transgenes in local landraces of maize in Oaxaca, Mexico (2003-2004).  Proceedings of the National Academies of Science USA. 102 (35):12338-12343. Spanish Abstract

Snow, A. A., D. A. Andow, P. Gepts, E. M. Hallerman, A. Power., J. M. Tiedje, and L. L. Wolfenbarger.  2004. Genetically engineered organisms and the environment: Current status and recommendations. Ecological Applications 15 (2):377-404.

Selbo, S.M. and A.A. Snow. 2004.  The potential for hybridization between Typha augustifolia and Typha latifolia in a constructed wetland. Aquatic Botany 78: 361-369.

Snow, A. 2003. Unnatural Selection. Nature 424:619.

Snow, A. A., D. Pilson, L. H. Rieseberg, M. J. Paulsen, N. Pleskac, M. R. Reagon, D. E. Wolf, and S. M. Selbo.  2003.  A Bt transgene reduces herbivory and enhances fecundity in wild sunflowers. Ecological Applications 13: 279-286.

Cummings, C. L., H. M. Alexander, A. A. Snow, L. H. Rieseberg, M. J. Kim, and T. M. Culley.  2002. Fecundity selection in an experimental  sunflower crop-wild system: how well do ecological data predict crop allele persistence Ecological Applications 12(6) 1661-1671. 

Snow, A. A.  2002.  Transgenic crops - Why gene flow matters.  Nature Biotechnology 20: 542.

Alexander, H., C. Cummings, L. Kahn, and A. Snow.  2001.  Seed-size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers.  American Journal of Botany 88: 623-627.

Borgella, R., A. A. Snow, and T. A. Gavin.  2001.  Species richness and pollen loads of hummingbirds using forest fragments in southern Costa Rica.  Biotropica 33: 90-109.

Snow, A. A., K. L. Uthus, and T. M. Culley.  2001.  Fitness of hybrids between weedy and cultivated radish:  implications for weed evolution.  Ecological Applications 11: 934-943.

Spencer, L. J., and A. A. Snow.  2001.  Fecundity of transgenic wild-crop hybrids of Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae): implications for crop-to-wild gene flow.  Heredity 86: 694-702.

Snow, A. A., T. Spira, and H. Liu.  2000.  Effects of sequential pollination on the success of "fast" and "slow" pollen donors in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae).  American Journal of Botany 87: 1656-1659.

Snow, A. A., B. Andersen, and R. Jørgensen.  1999.  Costs of transgenic herbicide resistance introgressed from Brassica napus into weedy B. rapaMolecular Ecology 8: 605-615.

Cummings, C., H. Alexander, and A. Snow.  1999.  Increased predispersal seed predation in sunflower wild-crop hybrids.  Oecologia, 121: 330-338.

Jørgensen, R., B. Andersen, A. Snow, and T. Hauser.  1999.  Ecological risks of growing genetically modified crops.  Plant Biotechnology, 16: 69-71.

Lee, T, and A. A. Snow.  1998.  Pollinator preferences and persistence of crop genes in wild radish populations (Raphanus raphanistrum, Brasicaceae).  American Journal of Botany, 85: 333-339.

Linder, C. R., I. Taha, G. Seiler, A. Snow, and L. Rieseberg.  1998.  Long-term introgression of crop genes into wild sunflower populations.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 96: 339-347.

Parker, P., A. A. Snow, M. D. Schug, G. C. Booton, and P. A. Fuerst. 1998.  What molecules can tell us about populations: choosing and using a molecular marker.  Ecology, 79: 361-382.

Snow, A. A. and P. Parker.  1998.  Molecular markers for population biology.  Ecology, 79: 359-360.

Snow, A. A., P. Moran-Palma, L. H. Rieseberg, A. Wszelaki, and G. J. Seiler.  1998.  Fecundity, phenology, and seed dormancy of F1 wild-crop hybrids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asteraceae).  American Journal of Botany, 85: 794-801. 

Snow, A. A., L. Rieseberg, H. Alexander, C. Cummings, and D. Pilson.  1998.  Assessment of gene flow and potential effects of genetically engineered sunflowers and wild relatives.  Seminar given at 5th International Biosafety Symposium, Braunschweig, Germany, September 6 - 10, 1998. 

Snow, A. A., and P. Moran-Palma.  1997.  Commercialization of transgenic plants: potential ecological risks.  BioScience, 47: 86-96.

Whitton, J. D. E. Wolf, D. M. Arias, A. A. Snow, and L. H. Rieseberg.  1997.  The persistence of sunflowers five generations after hybridization.  Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95: 33-40.

Books and Book Chapters

National Research Council 2006. Status of Pollinators in North America. National Academies Press, Washington,  DC. ISBN 0-309-10289-8.

Snow, A. A. and L. G. Campbell. 2005.   Can Feral  Radishes become Weeds?  Pp .193-208. In: Gressel (Ed.) Crop Ferality and Volunteerism. CR  Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, Boca Raton, FL. ISBN 0-8493-2895-0.

Snow, A.A. 2005. Genetic modification and gene flow an overview. Pp. 107-118. In: D. L. Kleinman, A. J. Kinchy, and Jl Handlesman (Eds.) Controversies in Science and Technology: From Maize to Menopause. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. ISBN 0-299-20394-8.

Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America.  2004.  Maize and Biodiversity: the Effects of Transgenic Maize in Mexico.  Key Findings and Recommendations.  Secretariat Article 13 Report, November 8, 2004.  North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation,  NAFTA., ISBN 2-923358-00-7, Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Quebec, Canada.
National Research Council. 2004. Biological confinement of genetically engineered organisms.  National Academies Press, Washington, DC.  236 pp. ISBN 0-309-09085-7
Pilson, D., A. A. Snow, L. H. Rieseberg and H. M. Alexander.2004. A protocol for evaluating the ecological risks associated with gene flow from transgenic crops into their wild relatives: the case of cultivated sunflower and wild Helianthus annuus.  Chapter 17 in H. C. M. den Nijs, D. Bartsch, J. Sweet (Eds.). Introgression from genetically modified plants into wild relatives.  ISBN 0-85199-816X CAB International Publishing

National Research Council.  2000. Genetically modified pest-protected plants: science and regulation.  National Academies Press, Washington, DC.  263 pp. ISBN 0-309-06930-0

Snow Lab Home

Ohio State University Home Page

Last Updated:  January 2015