# LaTeX Help

The information given below is adapted from the American Physics Society web site. It contains the information needed to produce many, if not most, of the special symbols used in spectroscopy; however, it is by no means all inclusive. An excellent supplement for those needing more details is the WWW Help with LaTeX Site produced by the late Sheldon Green.

## LaTeX Commands for Selected Special Symbols

Greek letters and most mathematical symbols must be identified descriptively in an electronic submission. Here is a list of some of the most commonly used symbols. These commands must all be given in LaTeX's "math" mode, i.e., between dollars signs ($); see the LaTeX user manual for additional information about math mode. ### Non-English Characters #### Greek letters: To obtain a Greek letter in your abstract, type a backslash (\) followed by the name of the letter. Lower-case Greek letters. Note omicron is simply lower-case "o".  \alpha \eta \nu \tau \beta \theta \xi \upsilon \gamma \iota o \phi \delta \kappa \pi \chi \epsilon \lambda \rho \psi \zeta \mu \sigma \omega  Upper-case Greek letters.  \Gamma \Lambda \Sigma \Psi \Delta \Xi \Upsilon \Omega \Theta \Pi \Phi  #### Other non-English characters: The following accents may be placed on letters. Although "o" is used in most of the example, the accents may be placed on any letter. Accents may even be placed above a "missing" letter; for example, \~{} produces a tilde over a blank space. The following commands may be used only in paragraph or LR mode. • \{o} produces a grave accent, ò • \'{o} produces an acute accent, ó • \^{o} produces a circumflex, ô • \"{o} produces an umlaut or dieresis, ö • \H{o} produces a long Hungarian umlaut • \~{o} produces a tilde, õ • \c{c} produces a cedilla, ç • \={o} produces a macron accent (a bar over the letter) • \b{o} produces a bar under the letter • \.{o} produces a dot over the letter • \d{o} produces a dot under the letter • \u{o} produces a breve over the letter • \v{o} produces a "v" over the letter • \t{oo} produces a "tie" (inverted u) over the two letters Note that the letters "i" and "j" require special treatment when they are given accents because it is often desirable to replace the dot with the accent. For this purpose, the commands \i and \j can be used to produce dotless letters. For example, • \^{\i} should be used for i, circumflex, î • \"{\i} should be used for i, umlaut, ï • \ae small ae ligature (diphthong), æ • \AE capital ae ligature, Æ • \oe small oe ligature • \OE capital OE ligature • \aa small a, ring, å • \AA capital A, ring, Å • \o small o, slash, ø • \O capital O, slash, Ø • \ss German sz ligature, ß ### Other useful characters and commands Superscripts are indicated by a caret (shift-6): ^{SCRIPT}, e.g.,$\pi r^{2}$. The example shown here is the formula for the area of a circle. LaTeX math mode (necessary for equations and super- and subscripts) is specified with the dollar signs; the lower case pi (\pi) and radius variable r have a space between them in the markup (it would not appear in the output), and the superscript 2 is the "argument" (enclosed in curly braces) to the superscript operator ^. Subscripts are indicated by an underscore: _{SCRIPT}, e.g.,$J_{\nu}$. The abbreviation for Angstroms is indicated by \AA. Circular degrees can be specified with \deg, e.g.,$45\deg$. We have also defined three special commands for symbols often encountered in Symposium abstracts. COMMAND USE LATEX FORMULATION \wn wavenumbers \newcommand{\wn}{\ensuremath{\mathrm{cm}^{-1}}} \nub{} vibrational level \newcommand{\nub}[1]{\ensuremath{\nu_{#1}}} \chem{} chemical formula \newcommand{\chem}[1]{}\ensuremath{mathrm{#1}}  Use as follows: INSERT SPECTROSCOPIC NOTATION FOR 19800\wn 19800 wavenumbers (cm to the (-1)) \nub{1} and \nub{3} levels nu sub 1 and nu sub 3 levels \chem{CH-4} correct chemical formula for methane  Additional information is available from Green's Help with LaTeX. Complete charts of symbols and markup names available in LaTeX are given at the end of the LaTeX Command Summary, which can be retrieved via anonymous FTP from ftp.shsu.edu or from nic.funet.fi. The Command Summary must be processed with LaTeX and printed in order to be useful. ## Problems To Be Aware Of, So You Can Avoid Them For the most part, automatic abstract processing is very successful. However, here is a list of some of the problems that sometimes occur, but can be easily avoided.  1. Word processors cause the largest share of troubles. If you use Word, WordPerfect, or another word processor, please be sure to save the file as an ASCII file (plain text, DOS text, etc.) 2. Some punctuation marks are special characters to LaTeX, and you must put a backslash (\) in front of them so the proper mark is placed in the text. You should specify them like so: \& \$       \{     \}
\%       \#       \_

3. Make sure you use only upper case in the title and author
names, except for special cases, e.g., He, Al, McDONALD, the
conjunction "and" before the the last author in a series,
etc. Your abstract will be checked and automatically rejected
for failure to observe this convention.

4. Be careful not to add extra "{" or "}".  Keep them in pairs.

5. Please note that some lines in the template are not to be removed,
edited, commented out, or otherwise trifled with. Please
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